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A new index of forest management intensity

An index of forest management intensity based on assessment of harvested tree volume, tree species composition and dead wood origin


Tiemo Kahl und Jürgen Bauhus



Forest management intensity often affects biodiversity, ecosystem processes and ecosystem services. To assess the influence of past management intensity on current ecosystem properties, management intensity must be quantified in a meaningful and reproducible approach. Here we developed the simple yet effective Forest Management Intensity index (ForMI), which is based only on inventory data of the living stand, stumps and dead wood. The ForMI is the sum of three components taking into account: 1. the proportion of harvested tree volume (Iharv), 2. the proportion of tree species that are not part of the natural forest community (Inonat) and 3. the proportion of dead wood showing signs of saw cuts (Idwcut). Each component ranges between 0 (no sign of management) and 1 (intensive management). Our analysis suggests that the ForMI can be used to assess management intensity in Central European forests for the last 30 to 40 years, depending on decay rates of stumps and dead wood. Our approach was tested using data of 148 forest plots of 1 ha in size in Germany. We found a significant distinction between plots that were previously described as managed and unmanaged as well as between plots comprising trees species of the natural forest community and those with additional, introduced coniferous tree species. We conclude that the index is applicable to a wide range of forest management types, but should not be misinterpreted as an index for old-growth structure.


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