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Dr. Norbert Kühl

Research Associate


 Tennenbacherstr. 4
 79106 Freiburg im Breisgau


  Room    4071
  Fon. +49 0761/203-3679
  Fax. +49 0761/203-3781





Research interest

Vegetation and climate dynamics on multiple temporal and spatial scales

Current projects

  • Transfer in the subject area 'browsing on forest trees by game animals' (Link, in German)
  • Dynamic Vegetation modelling of important trees in Baden-Württemberg, Germany: DynaVeg (in German)



Scientific articles (peer-reviewed, indexed in SCI)

Hagen, R., Kühl, N., Hanewinkel, M., Suchant, R. (2021): Number and height of unbrowsed saplings are more appropriate than the proportion of browsed saplings for predicting silvicultural regeneration success. Annals of Forest Science 87:online first. link.

Chevalier, M., Davis, B.A.S, Heiri, O., Seppä, H., Chase, B.M., Seppä, H., Gajewski, K., Lacourse, T., Telford, R. J., Finsinger, W., Guiot, J., Kühl, N., Maezumi, S. Y., Tipton, J. R., Carter, V., Brussel, T., Phelps, L. N., Dawson, A., Valle, F., Nolan, C., Mauri, A., de Vernal, A., Izumi, K., Holmström, L., Marsicek, J., Goring, S., Sommer, P.S., Chaput, M., Kupriyanov, D. (2020): A review of pollen-based climate reconstruction techniques for late Quaternary studies. Earth-Science Reviews 210:103384. link

Hagen, R., Kühl, N., Kröschel, M., Suchant, R. (2020): Verbiss an Tanne und Eiche in Baden-Württemberg: Ein Vergleich zwischen nadelbaum- und laubbaumdominierten Wald­beständen. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung 190(7/8): 161-168.

Brewer, S., Giesecke, T., Davis, B., Finsinger, W., Wolters, S., Binney, H.A., de Beaulieu, J.-L., Five, R., Gil-Romera, G., Kühl, N., Kuneš, P., Leydet, M., Bradshaw, R. (2017): Lateglacial and Holocene European Pollen Data. Journal of Maps 13(2): 921-928.

Samartin, S., Heiri, O., Kaltenrieder, P., Kühl, N., Tinner, W. (2016): Reconstruction of full glacial environments and temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northern Italy. Quaternary Science Reviews 143: 107-119.

Lamentowicz, M., Gałka, M., Lamentowicz, Ł., Obremska, M., Kühl, N., Lücke, A., Jassey, V. (2015): Reconstructing climate change and ombrotrophic bog development during the last 4000 years in northern Poland using biotic proxies, stable isotopes and trait-based approach. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 418: 261-277.

Seppä, H., Schurgers, G., Miller, P. A., Bjune, A. E., Giesecke, T., Korhonen, M., Kühl, N., Renssen, H. and Salonen, J. S. (2015): Trees Tracking the warmer climate: the Holocene range shift of hazel (Corylus avellana) in Northern Europe. The Holocene 25: 53-63.

Seriene, V., Kühl, N., and Kisielienė, D. (2014): Quantitative reconstruction of climate fluctuations during the Eemian (Merkinė) and Weichselian (Nemunas) in Lithuania. Quaternary Research 82: 229-235.

Birks, H.H., Aarnes, I., Bjune, A.E., Brooks, S.J., Bakke, J. Kühl, N. and Birks, H.J.B. (2014): Late­-glacial and early-Holocene climate variability reconstructed from multi-proxy records on Andøya, northern Norway. Quaternary Science Reviews 89: 108-122.

Giesecke, T., Davis, B., Brewer, S., Finsinger, W., Wolters, S., Blaauw, M., Beaulieu, J.-L., Binney, H., Fyfe, R., Gaillard, M.-J., Gil-Romera, G., Knaap, W.O., Kuneš, P., Kühl, N., Leeuwen, J.N., Leydet, M., Lotter, A., Ortu, E., Semmler, M., Bradshaw, R.W., (2014): Towards mapping the late Quaternary vegetation change of Europe. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 23: 75-86.

Davis, B.A.S. and 69 coauthors, including Kühl, N. (2013): The European Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) project. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 22: 521-530.

Houben, P., Kühl, N., Dambeck, R. and Overath, J. (2013): Lateglacial to Holocene rapid crater infilling of a MIS 2 maar volcano (West-Eifel Volcanic Field, Germany): environmental history and geomorphological feedback mechanisms. Boreas 42: 974-958.

Kühl, N. and Moschen, R. (2012): A combined pollen and δ18OSphagnum record of Mid-Holocene climate variability from Dürres Maar (Eifel, Germany). The Holocene 22: 1073-1083.

Nielsen, A.B., Giesecke, T., Theuerkauf, M., Feeser, I., Beug, H.-J., Chen, S.-H., Christiansen, J., Jahns, S., Kühl, N., Latalowa, M., Odgaard, B.V., Rasmussen, P., Stockholm, J. & Wolters, S. (2012): Quantitative reconstructions of changes in regional openness in north-central Europe reveal new insights into old questions. Quaternary Science Reviews 47: 131-149.

Koutsodendris, A., Pross, J., Müller, U.C., Brauer, A., Fletcher, W.J., Kühl, N., Kirilova, E., Verhagen, F., Lücke, A. & Lotter, A.F. (2012): A short-term climate oscillation during the Holsteinian interglacial (MIS 11c): An analogy to the 8.2 ka climatic event? Global and Planetary Change 92-93: 224-235.

Aarnes, I., Kühl, N. & Birks, H. H. (2012): Quantitative climate reconstruction from late-glacial and early Holocene plant macrofossils in western Norway using the probability density function approach. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 170, 27-39.

Moschen, R., Kühl, N., Peters, S., Vos, H. & Lücke, A. (2011): Temperature variability at Dürres Maar, Germany during the migration period and at high medieval times, inferred from stable carbon isotopes of Sphagnum cellulose. Climate of the Past 7: 1011-1026.

Kühl, N., & Gobet, E. (2010): Climatic evolution during the Middle Pleistocene warm period of Bilshausen, Germany, compared to the Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29, 3736-3749.

Kühl, N., Moschen, R., Wagner, S., Brewer, S. & Peyron, O. (2010): A multiproxy record of Late Holocene natural and anthropogenic environmental change from the Sphagnum peat bog Dürres Maar, Germany: implications for quantitative climate reconstructions based on pollen. Journal of Quaternary Science 25: 675-688.

Litt, T., Schölzel, C., Kühl, N. & Brauer, A. (2009): Vegetation and climate history in the Westeifel Volcanic Field (Germany) during the last 11,000 years based on annually laminated lacustrine maar sediments. Boreas 38: 679-690.

Moschen, R., Kühl, N., Rehberger, I., Lücke, A., (2009): Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in sub-fossil Sphagnum: Assessment of their applicability for palaeoclimatology. Chemical Geology 259: 262–272.

Fyfe, R., de Beaulieu, J.-L., Binney, H., Bradshaw, R., Brewer, S., Le Flao, A., Finsinger, W., Gaillard, M.-J., Giesecke, T., Gil-Romera, G., Grimm, E., Huntley, B., Kunes, P., Kühl, N., Leydet, M., Lotter, A., Tarasov, P., Tonkov, S. (2009): The European Pollen Database: past efforts and current activities. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 18: 417-424.

Gebhardt, C., Kühl, N., Hense, A. & Litt, T. (2008): Reconstruction of Quaternary temperature fields by dynamically consistent smoothing. Climate Dynamics 30: 421-437.

Kühl, N., Schölzel, C.A., Litt, T. & Hense, A. (2007): Eemian and Early Weichselian temperature and precipitation variability in Northern Germany. Quaternary Science Reviews 26: 3311-3317.

Kühl, N. & Litt, T. (2007): Quantitative time series reconstructions of Holsteinian and Eemian temperatures using botanical data. In: Claussen, M., Litt, T., Sanchez-Goni, M. & Sirocko, F. (Eds.): The Climate of Past Interglacials. Developments in Quaternary Sciences, Volume 7, Chapter 16, Elsevier, pp. 239-254.

Sirocko, F., Claussen, M., Litt, T., Sánchez Goñi, M.F., Berger, A., Boettger, T., Diehl, M., Desprat, S., Delmonte, B., Degering, D., Frechen, M., Geyh, M.A., Groeger, M., Kageyama, M., Kaspar, F., Kühl, N., Kubatzki, C., Lohmann, G., Loutre, M-F., Müller, U.C., Rein, B., Rosendahl, W., Roucoux, K., Rousseau, D-D., Seelos, K., Siddall, M., Scholz, D., Spötl, C., Urban, B., Vautravers, M., Velichko, A., Wenzel, S., Widmann, M. & Wünnemann, B. (2007): Chronology and climate forcing of the last four interglacials. In: Sirocko, F., Claussen, Sánchez Goñi, M.F. & Litt, T. (Eds.) The Climate of Past Interglacials. Developments in Quaternary Science, Volume 7, Elsevier: 597-614.

Kaspar, F., Kühl, N., Cubasch, U. & Litt, T. (2005): A model-data-comparison of European temperatures in the Eemian interglacial. Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 32, No. 11, L11703. doi:10.1029/2005GL022456

Kühl, N. & Litt, T. (2003): Quantitative time series reconstruction of Eemian temperature at three European sites using pollen data. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 12: 205-214.

Kühl, N., Gebhardt C., Litt, T. & Hense, A. (2002): Probability Density Functions as Botanical-Climatological Transfer Functions for Climate Reconstruction. Quaternary Research 58: 381-392.

Schölzel, C. A., Hense, A., Hübl, P., Kühl, N. & Litt, T. (2002): Digitization and geo-referencing of botanical distribution maps. Journal of Biogeography 29: 851-856.

Book chapters and other scientific articles

Geyer, J., Fräger, C., Thoma, S., Kröschel, M., Kühl, N., Suchant, R. (2021): Praxis-Ratgeber Waldumbau & Jagd. Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt Baden-Württemberg: 94 S.

Kühl, N., Geyer, J., Kröschel, M., Suchant, R. (2021): Waldumbau und Wildverbiss. AFZ  06/2021: 12-15.

Wolters, S., Städing, R. & Kühl, N. (2018): Zur Wald- und Forstgeschichte der Schweinebrücker Fuhrenkämpe. Nachrichten des Marschenrates zur Förderung der Forschung im Küsten­gebiet der Nordsee 55: 48-56.

Kühl, N., Gebhardt, C., Kaspar, F., Hense, A. & Litt, T. (2008): Reconstruction of Quaternary temperature fields and model-data comparison. PAGES News 16 (2): 8-9.

Sirocko, F., Cubasch, U., Kaspar, F., von Storch, H., Widmann, M., Litt, T., Kühl, N., Mangini, A., Pachur, H.-J., Claussen, M., Kubatzki, C., Junge, F. W., Böttger, T., Krbetschek, M., and Degering, D. (2004). Climate Change at the Very End of a Warm Stage: First Results from the Last Glacial Inception at 117,000 yr BP. PAGES News 12 (2): 18-20.

Kumke, T., Hense, A., Schölzel, C., Andreev, A.A., Brüchmann, C., Gebhardt, C., Helle, G., Kienel, U., Kühl, N., Litt, T., Neumann, F., Schleser, G. (2004): Transfer functions for paleoclimate reconstructions - Applications. In: H. Fischer, Kumke, T., Lohmann, G., Flöser, G., Miller, H., von Storch, H., Negendank, J.F.W. (Editors), The KIHZ project: Towards a synthesis of paleoclimate variability using proxy data and climate models. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 245-262.

Gebhardt, C., Kühl, N., Hense, A. & Litt, T. (2003): Multiscale Processes and the Reconstruction of Palaeoclimate. In: Neugebauer, H. J. & Simmer, C. (eds): Dynamics of Multiscale Earth Systems. - Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 97: 325-336.

Kühl, N. (2003): Quantitative Klimarekonstruktion mittels paläobotanischer Daten aus langen kontinentalen Sedimentfolgen des Jungpleistozäns. Terra Nostra 2003/6: 260-266.

Kühl, N. (2002): Rekonstruktion des quartären Klimas auf der Grundlage paläobotanischer Daten – Methoden und Ergebnisse. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft 21: 206.

Litt, T., Hense, A., Kühl, N. & Gebhardt, C. (2001): Probleme bei der Bestimmung botanisch-klimatologischer Transferfunktionen und die Rekonstruktion des bodennahen Klimazustands im europäischen Jungquartär. Terra Nostra 2001/7: 144-155.

Kühl, N. (1998): Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen zur Vegetations- und Siedlungs­ge­schichte in einem Kesselmoor bei Drangstedt, Ldkr. Cuxhaven. Probleme der Küstenforschung im südlichen Nordseegebiet 25: 303-324.


Kühl, N. (2006): Book review: "Palmer, Douglas (2004): Die Geschichte des Lebens auf der Erde. Vier Milliarden Jahre. 176 S. und zahlr. Abb. Primus Verlag, Darmstadt”. Erdkunde 60: 84-85.

Kühl, N. (2005): Book review: "Mee M.: Margaret Mee’s Amazon. Diaries of an Artist Explorer. 400 color illustrations, 320 pp. Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge, 2004.” Pl. Syst. Evol. 254: 256-257.

Kühl, N. (2004): Book review: "Beug, H.J. (2004): Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung für Mitteleuropa und angrenzende Gebiete. 542 S., 120 Tafeln, 29 Abb., 12 Tab., zahlreiche Bestimmungsschlüssel." Tuexenia 24: 409-410.

Qualification theses

Kühl, N. (2009): Quantitative Klimarekonstruktionen für die letzten 400.000 Jahre im nördlichen Mitteleuropa. Kumulative Habilitationsschrift, Universität Bonn.

Kühl, N. (2002): Die Bestimmung botanisch-klimatologischer Transferfunktionen und die Rekonstruktion des bodennahen Klimazustandes in der Eem-Warmzeit. Dissertation, Universität Bonn, 144 S. Veröffentlicht in Dissertationes Botanicae 375. 149 S.

Kühl, N. (1997): Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen zur Vegetations- und Siedlungs­ge­schichte in einem Kesselmoor bei Drangstedt, Ldkr. Cuxhaven. Diplomarbeit, Univ. Oldenburg, 70 S.

Conference contributions (only
contributions as first author and presenter are listed)


Kühl, N., Böddeker, H., Traiser, C., Albrecht, A. (2021): Das Potential einheimischer Baumarten im Klimawandel als Ergebnis dynamischer Vegetationsmodellierun. Forstwissenschaftliche Tagung, online (Weihenstephan), 13.09. - 15.09.2021 (Vortrag)


Kühl, N., Suchant, R. (2019): Forestry and browsing by deer in central Europe: paths towards integrative management. Wildlife Research and Conservation Conference, Berlin, 30.09.-02.10.2019 (Poster)

Kühl, N., Hagen, R., Suchant, R. (2018):  Rehwildverbiss in Naturverjüngung – Was hat welchen Einfluss? Forstwissenschaftliche Tagung, Göttingen, 24.09. -27.09.2018 (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., Tinner, W. (2018): Climate change in coastal Sicily during the last 10,000 years. Climate Change Biogeography – International Biogeographical Society meeting, 20.-24.03.2018, Évora (Vortrag)

Kühl, N. (2017):  Spatial difference in Holocene climatic trends. 27. Jahrestreffen des Arbeitskreises Vegetationsgeschichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft, Göttingen, 29.09. -01.10.2017 (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., Schult, W., Ohlwein, C, Stolzenberger, S. (2015): On the universality of plant-climate relationships. 7th Biennial International Biogeography Conference, Bayreuth, 08.-12.01.2015 (Poster)

* Kühl, N., Moschen, R., Peters, S., Lücke, A., Vos, H. (2014): Towards separating the main forcings of Holocene environmental change. DEUQUA 2014, Innsbruck, 24.-29.09.

Kühl, N., Moschen, R., Peters, S., Lücke, A., Vos, H. (2014): Multiproxy-evidence for 6000 years of environmental change. GeoFrankfurt 2014, 01.-24.09. (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., Schult, W., Ohlwein, C, Stolzenberger, S. (2013): Wie universell sind Pflanzen-Klima-Beziehungen bestimmbar? 23. Jahrestreffen des Arbeitskreises Vegetations­geschichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft, Brandenburg, 13.-16.09. (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., Tinner, W. (2011): Quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate on Sicily 18. INQUA-Congress, Bern, 21.-27.07. (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., Moschen, R., Wagner, S. (2010): Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene climate variability in the Eifel region evaluated with stable isotopes. EGU General Assembly, Vienna, 02.-07.05. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 12, EGU2010-5847-1 (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., (2009): Separating natural from anthropogenic signals in quantitative climate reconstructions. Socio-Environmental dynamics over the last 12,000 years: the creation of landscapes. Graduate school human development in Landscapes, Univ. of Kiel 01.-04. April.

Kühl, N., Moschen, R., Wagner, S., Lücke, A., Litt, T. (2008): Holocene environment dynamics of the Western Eifel region, Germany, quantified by pollen and stable isotopes. EURECO-GFOE 2008, Leipzig, 15.-19.09. (Poster)

Kühl, N., (2007): Comparison of the climatic evolution of four interglacials in Central Europe. XVII INQUA Congress, Cairns, 28.07.-03.08. Quaternary International 167-168: 221 (Vortrag).

Kühl, N., Hense, A. (2007): Comparison of the relations between climatic parameters and plant distributions in Europe and North America. XVII INQUA Congress, Cairns, 28.07.-03.08. Quaternary International 167-168: 221 (Poster).

Kühl, N. et al. (2006): Reconstruction and comparison of the climatic evolution of middle and upper Pleistocene warm periods and the Holocene. 150 Years of Neanderthal Discoveries, Bonn, 21-26.07. Terra Nostra 2006/2:94 (Vortrag).

Kühl, N. (2005): Quantitative Klimarekonstruktion von Eem und Frühweichsel (ca. 127.000-80.000a BP) mittels paläobotanischer Daten. 55. Deutscher Geographentag, Trier, 03.-06.10. (Poster).

Kühl, N. (2005): Quantitative Klimarekonstruktionen von Warmzeiten des Mittel- und Jungpleistozäns. DEKLIM PAGES Conference, Leipzig, Mai 10-12 2005. (Poster).

Kühl, N. (2004): Botanical Macro Remains Enhance Pollen-Based Quantitative Climate Reconstructions. Jahrestreffen der Arbeitsgruppe Archäobotanik des Arbeitskreises Vegetationsgeschichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft in Regensburg, 24.-26.09. (Poster)

Kühl, N., et al. (2004): Quantitative climate reconstructions of the last interglacial (Eemian) using botanical data and their comparison with model results. EGU 1st General Assembly, Nice, France. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 1p. (Vortrag & Poster)

Kühl, N. (2004): Changing climate, changing vegetation: quantitatively reconstructing paleo climate and implications for the future. DFG Research Conference, Washington, 04.-06.04. (Poster)

* Kühl, N. (2003): Quantitative climate reconstruction using paleo botanical data from long continental sediment profiles of the upper Pleistocene. 6. Deutsche Klimatagung – Klimavariabilität, Potsdam, 22.-25.09. Conference Abstracts, 6pp. (Vortrag)

Kühl, N. (2002): Pollen (and Leaves): Implications for Quantitative Climate Reconstructions. 13th Plant Taphonomy Meeting, Bonn, 09.11. (Vortrag)

Kühl, N. (2002): Quantitative Climate Reconstruction of the Eemian in Europe. 6th European Paleobotany-Palynology Conference, Athens, 29.08.-02.09. (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., et al. (2001): Climate reconstruction on the basis of botanical proxy data – how many and which taxa are used? 11. Jahrestreffen des Arbeitskreises Vegetationsgeschichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft, Wilhelmshaven, 26.-28.10. (Vortrag)

Kühl, N., Gebhardt, C., Litt, T. & Hense, A. (2000): Quantitative Rekonstruktion des Klimas im Jungquartär mittels paläobotanischer Daten. DEUQUA2000, Bern, 06.-08.09. (Poster)

Kühl, N. (1999): Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen der Vegetations- und Siedlungs­geschichte in einem Kesselmoor bei Drangstedt, Lkrs. Cuxhaven. Jahrestreffen der AG Archäobotanik des AK Vegetations­geschichte der Reinhold-Tüxen-Gesellschaft, Köln, 19.-21.03. (Vortrag)

* Invited Keynote Presentation

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